Third party E-Cat test, Ferrara, Italy (2012-2013)
Between November 2012 and March 2013 a group of scientists were involved in testing of Rossi’s E-Cat reactors in a facility operated by Andrea Rossi's Leonardo Corporation in Ferrara, Italy.
The testing team released a report of their findings which was published in May 2013 on the Arxiv.org website.
The listed authors of the report are:
Giuseppe Levi, Assistant Professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna University
Evelyn Foschi, Product Development Department for medical devices, University of Bologna, Italy.
Torbjörn Hartman, Senior Research Engineer, The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
Bo Höistad, Professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Roland Pettersson, Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Lars Tegnér, Professor Emeritus, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Electricity, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Hanno Essen, Docent and Lecturer, Department of Mechanics of the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
There were three separate tests covered in this report.
The first test took place in November 2012. In this test the E-Cat reactor under test was destroyed when it went into a thermal runaway condition, and eventually melted down.
The second test took place in December 2012. The E-Cat reactor had an outer shell made of silicon nitride with the dimensions of 33 x 10 cm. The inner shell made of corundum (ceramic material) housing three spiral wire resistors placed equidistantly and running the full length of the cylinder. These were fed electricity by a TRIAC power regulator. Inside the inner cylinder was the powder charge (which the testers did not have access to).
The E-Cat’s average hourly power consumption was calculated at 360 W. Heat energy was considered to be mainly via radiation and convection. Very little conduction was possible because of the minimal contact points between the E-Cat and the support frame. “Energy emitted by radiation was calculated by means of Stefan-Boltzmann’s formula, which allows to evaluate the heat emitted by a body when its surface temperature is known”
This test lasted for 96 hours. The power production due to radiation was calculated as 1568 W. The power production due to convection was calculated as 466 W.
Total calculated power production per hour was calculated as 2034 W
COP (ratio of power produced to power consumed) was calculated as 2034/360 = 5.6 ± 0.8 assuming a 10% error in the powers.
The third test was conducted in March, 2013. A different design of E-Cat reactor was used. The outer shell was a steel cylinder, 33 x 9 cm with a steel circular flange at one end 20 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick. The flange was for the purpose of being able to insert the reactor into a heat exchanger (not used in this test). The inner cylinder containing the powder charge is the same as in the first test: a sealed stainless steel cylinder 33 x 3 cm.
The control system used in this test allowed the device to operate in “self-sustaining mode, i.e. to remain operative and active, while powered off, for much longer periods of time with respect to those during which power is switched on.” After a two hour start up period, the system went into an ON/OFF cycle in which the resistor coils were powered on for two minutes, and then turned off for four minutes.
Power produced for this test (which lasted for 116 hours) was calculated as 816 Watts, and power consumption at 322 Watts per hour, giving a COP of 2.9
The testers reported that "Computed volumetric and gravimetric energy densities were found to be far above those of any known chemical source. Even by the most conservative assumptions as to the errors in the measurements, the result is still one order of magnitude greater than conventional energy sources." They noted that they would conduct another test later in 2013 to investigate the apparent cause of the production of the excess energy measured.