Low energy nuclear reactions

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Low energy nuclear reactions — often referred to as LENR -- refers to a phenomenon where anomalous amounts of heat is generated when certain metals (e.g. nickel, palladium) absorb hydrogen or deuterium and an external stimulus such as heat or an electric current is applied. The reaction takes place at relatively low temperatures and sometimes results in transmutation of elements as well as the production of heat. Either no strong radiation is produced or it is absorbed locally. The waste products are not radioactive.

LENR is seen by many as a potentially revolutionary source of energy, where no chemical combustion takes place, so no greenhouse gases are produced in the reaction, only tiny amounts of fuels are used, and the fuel can be recycled when it is spent. The most promising forms of LENR today involve the use of nickel and hydrogen, both abundant and inexpensive elements, so in addition to being a clean source of energy, it could be a very cheap one also.


Synonyms

LENR is also referred to as:

  1. Cold Fusion (CF)
  2. Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR)
  3. Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR)
  4. Heat Energy from Nuclei Interaction (HENI)
  5. Low Energy NanoScale Reactions (LENR)
  6. The New Fire
  7. Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE)
  8. Cold Nuclear Transmutations (CNT)
  9. LENR+ (Used for high output Ni-H systems)
  10. The Rossi Effect (Mostly used in relation to the E-Cat)
  11. The Fleischmann and Pons Effect (Mostly used in relation to the early Pd-D systems)

Comparison with Hot Fusion

LENR is a new class of nuclear phenomena, entirely different from the regular fusion (aka Hot Fusion). Unfortunately LENR is often confused with hot fusion and is referred to as fusion in a test tube, especially by popular science writers. This has lead to the general belief in the minds of laymen that cold fusion is impossible, since its obviously impossible to fuse nuclei in a test tube at room temperature. Not much effort has been made in main stream science reporting to rectify this belief. A comparison is given below to clarify the main differences between hot and cold fusion phenomenon. The social, political and economic differences are also highlighted. [1] [2] [3]


Cold Fusion Hot Fusion
A method of producing energy by absorption of Hydrogen or Deuterium in certain metallic compounds. The source of energy can be either fusion of the nuclei or transmutations or gamma rays. Brute force method of fusing two lighter nuclei together to produce energy that is deficit of the resultant mass of heavier nucleus.
Relatively low energies are required to start a reaction. (Thus the name). Temperatures ranging from room temperature to a few hundred degrees Kelvin are reported Very high energies are required to overcome the Coulomb's barrier in order to initiate a reaction. Temperatures of 100 million Kelvin are typical.
Can start at atmospheric pressures or up to 200 bars of pressure in some cases. Extremely high pressures are required, as great as the pressure at the core of the Sun.
Occurs in certain solids, often in powdered form. Occurs in plasma state.
Produces insignificant radiation or no radiation. Produces harmful radiation and radioactive byproducts. [4]
Uses simple devices like an electrolytic cell or a steel tube. Can be setup on a table top. Requires a huge machines the size of a big building, is an engineering and safety nightmare.
Mechanism is not well understood. Mechanism is well understood.
Not well supported by theories. There are many theories currently but not many are widely accepted Very well supported by theories. These are widely accepted.
Many successful experiment have been made that produce excess energy. So far all the controlled hot fusion projects have failed to show a net gain.
Most of the devices have a simple and reliable control mechanism, although these are all experimental. So far the reliability of control is not established, it needs a very complex control mechanism.
A lot of progress has been made (from mW of power to KW) in last 25 years Hot fusion power science has not progressed since last 75 years. In spite of novel methods and high technology used in various embodiments of hot fusion reactors, none can be said to be successful.
Research is mostly funded by small companies or individual. The money spent on cold fusion research is insignificant compared to the achievements. Funded by Governments of many countries and some corporations. Many billions have been spent on hot fusion since last 75 years despite its failure to produce usable energy.
Typical application : Industrial heating, Home heating, steam turbine, water desalination, power generation, automobile, space Typical application : Hydrogen bomb, power generation
Due to its safety and usability the cold fusion generators can be located at individual houses. The energy generator is huge and must be located well away from populations. There is a high risk of catastrophic failure.
Commercial products are expected within a year or two (as on Jan 2015) A working power plant is projected to take about 25 years to be operational in case a stable gain is achieved.
Its possible to achieve energy independence due to its tiny form factor and simplicity and it will be possible to eliminate dependency on the grid, governments and energy utility companies. Due to its complexity, huge size, extreme operating conditions, it can only be utilized as a centralized energy generator, needs heavy investments and highly skilled people to operate. Thus it encourages energy monopolies and centralized control over the basic need of energy.
Decentralized energy sources means that there would be no need of a distribution grid. Centralized power station still needs an outdated, insecure and highly expensive grid to be maintained.
A wide variety of applications and easier production means creation of millions of new jobs. Very few new job will be created. Existing jobs from conventional power plants can be shifted, resulting in no new jobs.
Can be manufactured by small companies and individuals with little capital expenditure. $Billion budgets means that such a reactor can only be built and operated by big corporations in rich countries.
Empowers the ordinary man on the street and makes poor countries prosper. Simply shift the power and control from oil producing countries to hot fusion enabled countries and individuals. Keeps the control in the hands of a few rich and powerful individuals. Cannot benefit poor nations much.
Portability is possible. Can be used in air, water, land and space vehicles easily. Its impossible to use it for mobile applications due to its gigantic size and dangers.
Applications in the area of transmutations is possible. This can enable not only cheap energy but also cheap materials, as unlimited amount of elements can be synthesized using transmutations. There is no such possibility.
Application in the area of radioactive waste elimination is possible. It adds to the problem of radioactive waste.
Can bring about the age of abundance. [5] The hot fusion scheme keeps the world in the age of scarcity, widens the rich-poor gap and is a threat to global peace.

History of LENR

The page History of LENR lists main events since 1800 to present that were relevant to LENR.

Modern interest in LENR began in 1989 when scientists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced they had succeeded in obtaining nuclear fusion reactions at room temperature in their laboratory experiments. This announcement sparked much interest in the media and in the scientific community, with many researchers attempting to replicate the effect in their own experiments — many without success. The effect is not always easy to reproduce, particularly as the preparation of the metal was critical and it sometimes took weeks for anomalous heat to appear. When the effect has been obtained it can also be difficult to measure accurately.

However, many replications of the effect were achieved successfully throughout the world. The excess power outputs of such experiments remained very low, of the order of milliwatts to a few watts.

The events took a big turn in 2011 when Rossi and Focardi publicly announced their discovery of a LENR reactor (the E-Cat) with an output of 10 kilowatts of heat. Efforts of commercialization started soon afterwards. Presently many research groups and commercial organizations are pursuing LENR.

Empirical Evidence for LENR

Numerous individual researchers, scientists, laboratories/government institutions, universities, companies and organizations have found irrefutable experimental evidence for LENR. Several thousand technical papers now exist in the growing field of LENR. Most of the papers are available in the online library of LENR papers. Some key papers according to the Infinite Energy Magazine are listed on Key Experiments That Substantiate Cold Fusion Phenomena. [6]

A summary of the status of LENR as on 2015 can be found in the paper The Present Status of Cold Fusion and its Expected Influence on Science and Technology by Edmund Storms.

A long list of papers is listed on the Papers on LENR page. (Starting from year 1926 to 2014 and growing).

Recent developments in the field of Ni-H systems, especially, Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer technology have been thoroughly investigated by independent third parties. The reports from such tests clearly show vast amount of useable excess energy output from such systems. [7]

Independent replication of the E-Cat by Russian Scientist Alexander Parkhomov has provided yet another major piece of empirical evidence which has resulted in many other replications from various people and organizations.

LENR Theories

The problem is not that there is no theory of LENR, but that there are too many. - Dr. Edmund Storms

Hundreds of attempts have been made to explain the LENR effect, yet no theory has gained a wide acceptance. Most of the theories use the standard physics to explain the LENR and do not propose any new physics.

Classification

The huge number of LENR theories makes the study of theoretical LENR tedious. Chechin tried to classify the theories into following groups [8]:

  • Barrier Circumvention (Avoidance)
    • Transmission Resonance (TR)
    • Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry (LINC)
    • Barrier Free (BF)
    • Coherent Deuteron Disintegration
    • QED Neutron Transfer
    • Bineutron (2n)
  • Barrier Reduction
    • Heavy Particle Catalylists (HPC)
    • Superradiance (SR)
    • Lattice Vibrations (LV)
    • Quantum Electrodynamic Confinement (QEC)
    • Screening and Effective Mass
  • Barrier Ascent
    • Fracto Acceleration (FA)
    • Fracto Acceleration Plasma (FAP)
    • Interface Acceleration (IA)
    • Lattice Collapse (LC)
    • Quantum Mechanical Transient
  • Narrow Nuclear Resonances (NNR)
  • Multibody Fusion
  • Exotic Chemistry

Notable theories

  • Bhadkamakar and Fox
  • Chubb and Chubb
  • Dufour et al
  • F.S. Liu
  • Fisher
  • Frodl et al
  • Hagelstein
  • Kim and Passell
  • Kozima
  • Lochak and Urutskove
  • Mesyats
  • Meyer and Reitz
  • Moon
  • Neutrons or dineutrons
  • Passell
  • Shoulders
  • Sinha and Meulenberg
  • Superheavy electrons
  • Swartz
  • Takahashi
  • Taplin
  • Meshugatron
  • Vigier et al

Recent theories

  • Widom and Larsen
  • Edmund Storms (NAE, Hydroton)
  • Francesco Piantelli
  • Andrea Rossi and Norman Cook [9]
  • DGT(HENI)
  • Randell Mills (Hydrino)
  • Carl-Oscar Gullström (Bound Neutron Tunneling)
  • Fedir Mykhaylov
  • Frank Znidarsic (Quantum Transition State BECNF)
  • Vladimir Dubinko (Discrete Breathers)
  • Stoyan Sarg (BSM-SG models)
  • Brian Ahern
  • Alberto Carpenteri
  • Robert Godes (Brillouin)

Transmutations

Low Energy Nuclear Transmutations or LENT is a branch of LENR that deals specifically with the phenomena of nuclear transmutations occurring at low temperatures along with anomalous heat. Many researchers have demonstrated the production of Helium and Tritium in early LENR experiments. Some researchers have claimed production of neutrons and gamma rays. Production of Alpha particles and Protons were also reported. Numerous elements and isotopic enrichments are detected in various experiments which are believed to be a result of LENT. A summary of experiments giving various transmutation products, complied by Edmund Storms, is available on the LENT page. [10]

Recent study of Rossi's E-Cat showed isotopic changes in the analysis of ash.

The LENT is now seeing some industrial applications. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries was granted a patent on a process that carries out nuclide transmutation by a reaction between the deuterium and a material that undergoes nuclide transmutation (December 2013). [11]

LENR in Nature

Fractofusion

The phenomenon of production of anomalous radiation or neutrons when a crystal is fractured in known as Fractofusion. It is believed to be a form of LENR. [12] [13]

Thunderstorms

Neutrons and Gamma rays are observed during normal thunderstorms and lightning strikes. These are believed to be a LENR process. [14] [15]

Geo Fusion

Geo Fusion is a hypothesis that suggests that LENR occurs naturally inside the core of the earth in metal hydrates. Steven Jones of Brigham Young University studied and theorized this idea. According to this hypothesis natural geo-fusion in the earth occurs in or near the core of the earth, in the hot, hydrogen-bearing metals and minerals which are subjected to extreme off-equilibrium conditions deep in the earth. This hypothesis can be tested by measuring tritium and helium-3 in magmatic fluids from hot-spot volcanoes which tap magmas from plumes arising from the core-mantle boundary. In particular, magmatic waters of Kilauea, Loihi, and Icelandic volcanoes are predicted to contain significant tritium. This theory predicts that tritium is also present in Jupiter, originating from ”cold” fusion in or near its metallic hydrogen core. [16]

Biological Transmutations

Most chemical reactions keep atoms, but a very small number cause fusions and also fissions of atoms in living beings. Although very few in number, these biological transmutations reactions involve a large number of species, from bacteria to mammals, in several biological processes that control and are essential for these organisms.

Researchers began to observe atoms conservation anomalies from the time conservation of matter was understood before 1800. It is only from 1959 that some researchers have understood that transmutations could explain biologic abnormalities. Since 1975, confirmation and publication of scientific works by Louis Kervran can be considered to have proven the existence of this phenomenon, but in 2014, it still has no confirmed theoretical explanation.

This biological effect seems to combine:

  • a chemical reaction
  • a low-energy interaction of atomic nuclei
  • and a catalysis (specific) which favors them in a biological process.

From 1799 to 1873 researchers asked themselves whether these transmutations exist. From 1959 to 1972 they have been proven by more than 6,000 elementary experiments. In 2003 Jean-Paul Biberian took stock of all the atoms involved in one bacterium. Since then some researchers have been wondering how to use these biological transmutations to reduce pollution by conventional radioactive waste.

A french site describe this history with many references.

Vysotskii et al. studied the potential of bacterial transmutations for clean up of nuclear waste. [17]

LENR Research

A number of independent researchers as well as many universities world wide are involved in basic LENR research. These include government labs as well as fully commercial projects. Various groups have emerged in last 25 years where the research findings are published in periodic meetings. ICCF is one of the major LENR research group. Thousands of papers related to LENR research have been published so far and are being published regularly around the world.[18]

There are many attempts going on at the moment by various parties to replicate and control the LENR effect. Some of these experiments are open sourced.

Commercialization Efforts

Several companies are now working on commercial products with claims of producing powers of the order of many KWs as heat. The leading companies in the race to reach the markets are Industrial Heat, Brillouin Energy Corporation, Clean Planet and NichEnergy. The commercial partners of Rossi, Industrial Heat is expected to deliver their first LENR plant of 1 MW capacity around November 2015 to February 2016.[19]

Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat invention has received a lot of attention because he was the first to publicly demonstrate his device and it has now been independently tested and validated by scientists, funded by the Swedish R&D organization Elforsk, demonstrating at least ten times the energy of any known chemical reaction and showing that the E-Cat is capable of producing useful heat.

Hundreds of patents have been filed by independent researchers, companies, government and military organizations pursuing LENR. Various claims are for a Coefficient of Performance (COP) from 6 to over 30 (meaning between 6 and 30 times more energy is produced than is input into a system). Even at the low end such a device would make obsolete virtually all other ways of producing power. High temperature, more efficient designs would be suitable for powering transport, even aircraft, although this would probably take decades. This promise of inexpensive, safe, clean power is why many are now following the subject.

LENR in Media

Mainstream media generally has taken a pessimistic view of LENR technology due to a high level of secrecy among the researchers and lack of transparency and communication from leading LENR companies, and also because of the scientific community's rapid denunciation of Pons and Fleischmann's work in the months and years following their announcement of their cold fusion discovery. However some newspapers and mainstream reporters have done extensive coverage of major LENR events and are very optimistic about the future of LENR. Some of them are:

See the references for links to the news articles.

Most of the news is being published by independent bloggers, forums and other LENR enthusiasts on the internet. Many websites and communities have emerged around the topic of LENR.

Books on LENR

LENR films and documentaries

  • The Saint (1997) [57]
  • Chain Reaction (1996) [58]
  • HeavyWatergate: The War Against Cold Fusion (2000) [59]
  • Cold Fusion: Fire from Water (1998) [60]
  • The Believers (2012) [61]
  • The Cold Fusion Conspiracy [62]
  • Following Nature's Documents (Ruby Carat, 2015) [63]

Who’s who in LENR World

References and Links

  1. A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion - by Edmund Storms
  2. Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations about Cold Fusion - by Edmond Storms
  3. Nuclear Fusion Power
  4. See Section : Assessing fusion power
  5. Abundance Future is Better than you Think
  6. Key Experiments That Substantiate Cold Fusion Phenomena. Compiled by Eugene F. Mallove, Sc. D., Editor-in-Chief. Infinite Energy Magazine.
  7. Measurements on LENR reactor reported – energy release and isotopes by Magnus Olofsson, CEO Elforsk – Swedish Electrical Utilities' R & D Company, Sweden
  8. Critical Review of Theoretical Models for Anomalous Effects (Cold Fusion) in Deuterated Metals V.A. Chechin, V.A.Tsarev, M. Rabinowitz, and Y.E. Kim, 1994
  9. On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat” Norman D. Cook and Andrea Rossi
  10. LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTIONS:TRANSMUTATIONS by Mahadeva Srinivasan George Miley and Edmund Storms, Preprint of review article distributed to participants of ICCF 16 Conference held in Chennai during Feb 2011
  11. Mitsubishi Cold Fusion LENR Patent Granted Transmutes Nuclear Waste
  12. Fractofusion mechanism by Yasui, Kyuichi (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics) from Frontiers of cold fusion
  13. Fractofusion Mechanism, Takeda, Tatsuoki; Takizuka, Tomonori, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Volume 58, Issue 9, pp. 3073 (1989).
  14. Strong Flux of Low-Energy Neutrons Produced by Thunderstorms, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001 – Published 19 March 2012, A. V. Gurevich, V. P. Antonova, A. P. Chubenko, A. N. Karashtin, G. G. Mitko, M. O. Ptitsyn, V. A. Ryabov, A. L. Shepetov, Yu. V. Shlyugaev, L. I. Vildanova, and K. P. Zybin
  15. Lattice Energy LLC-New Russian Data Supports WLT Neutron Production in Lightning-April 4 2012
  16. Geo-fusion and Cold Nucleosynthesis, S. E. Jones with J. E. Ellsworth, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84604
  17. Vysotskii, V., et al. Successful Experiments On Utilization Of High-Activity Waste In The Process Of Transmutation In Growing Associations Of Microbiological Cultures. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA
  18. LENR-CANR.org A library of papers about cold fusion
  19. 1 MW E-Cat Plant Watch Thread at E-CatWorld
  20. Articles by Mark Gibbs at Forbes sites
  21. Articles by Mats Lewan at NyTeknik
  22. Articles by David Hambling at Wired UK Magazine
  23. The Peak Oil Crisis: The Cold Fusion Conference
  24. Brian Westenhaus bio at oilprice.com
  25. Sebastian Anthony bio at ExtremeTech.com
  26. Energy jackpot waiting to be hit, The Hindu Business Line
  27. Do not forget the ‘other’ nuclear, The Hindu Business Line
  28. Scientists warming up to ‘cold fusion’, see potential in ‘other nuclear’ energy, The Hindu BusinessLine, April 9, 2015
  29. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: Papers and Patents, The Huffington Post, 29 Nov 2014
  30. Next Big Future articles on LENR
  31. Beaudette, C.G., Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed on Amazon.com
  32. Mallove, E.,Fire From Ice on Amazon.com
  33. Mizuno, T., Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion on Amazon.com
  34. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion And The Future, Free Ebook in PDF format
  35. Storms, E., The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction
  36. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion, Free Ebook PDF format
  37. Ludwik Kowalski, Cold Fusion is Not Voodoo Science
  38. Richard Long, Cold Fusion Power for Everything
  39. Mats Lewan, An Impossible Invention
  40. Antony Sutton, Cold Fusion: The Secret Energy Revolution
  41. Joe Shea, POWER A Story of Cold Fusion
  42. Hideo Kozima, The Science of the Cold Fusion Phenomenon
  43. Wilfred Higgins, The Coming Age of LENR
  44. Maurizio Vignati, Seminars By Martin Fleischmann On Cold Fusion
  45. Hank Mills, The E-Cat: Unlimited LENR Power for the Future
  46. Paul Stevens, A Star in a Jar: The Search for Cold Fusion
  47. Edward Esko, Dr. Mahadeva Srinivasan, Cool Fusion
  48. Edmund Storms, The Explanation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction
  49. Vladimir I. Vysotskii, Nuclear Transmutation of Stable & Radioactive Isotopes in Biological Systems
  50. Louis C. Kervran, Biological Transmutations
  51. Vessela Nikolova, E-Cat: The New Fire
  52. Mario Menichella, Secrets of E-Cat
  53. E-Cat The New Fire, March 3, 2015
  54. The Evolution of Physics: From Newton to Rossi's eCat (Kindle Edition) at Amazon.com
  55. Fusion in All Its Forms, Infinite Energy
  56. Derek Pletcher, Zhong-Qun Tian, David Williams, Developments in Electrochemistry: Science Inspired by Martin Fleischmann, June 2014
  57. The Saint (1997) Movie
  58. Chain Reaction (1996) Movie
  59. HeavyWatergate: The War Against Cold Fusion (2000) Documentary
  60. Cold Fusion: Fire from Water (1998) Documentary
  61. The Believers (2012) Documentary
  62. The Cold Fusion Conspiracy Documentary
  63. Following Nature's Documents