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This page provides links to information about LENR and E-Cat that is frequently asked for and tries to clear some doubts and misconceptions about them.


1. What is a Low Energy Nuclear Reaction ?

A physical phenomenon where large amounts of heat is released when light nuclei such as Hydrogen or Deuterium are trapped in a metal lattice of some metals such as Palladium or Nickel. The amount of heat energy released cannot be explained by that due to a chemical reaction, so the reaction is suspected to involve atomic nuclei. Evidence of transmutations and isotopic shifts in the ash from such reactions supports this view. The production of excess heat occurs at relatively low temperatures (0-1000`C).

2. Is Cold Fusion same as LENR ?

Yes. See here the other Synonyms.

3. Is it correct to say that LENR is - "Fusion in a test tube" ?

No, its impossible to have fusion in a test tube. LENR is some kind of nuclear phenomenon inside a solid lattice. See the comparison with hot fusion for detailed comparison.

4. Who discovered LENR or Cold Fusion ?

Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons demonstrated LENR in 1989.

5. Is it true that Fleischmann and Pons experiment was an error and could never be replicated ?

False. No one could prove an error in measurements made by Fleischmann and Pons. Their experiment has been replicated many times since their first successful one. See the History of LENR for who have replicated Fleischmann and Pons and when.

6. Didn't the failure to replicate F&P by a few scientist conclusively prove that cold fusion does not exist ?

No it doesn't prove it. A negative cannot be proven in Science. A failed experiment simply means that, that particular experiment could not produce any supporting data. If an experiment fails, it can be due to thousands of reasons and does not necessarily prove that the phenomenon under investigation does not exist. On the contrary, a single successful experiment warrants more investigations into the phenomenon under study.

7. Who is studying LENR and are there any papers published in mainstream science journals ?

See the List of LENR papers with authors and journals for some of the research material being published around the world. Visit online library of LENR papers for more.

8. Which Universities are involved in LENR research ?

See the List of universities involved in LENR research‎.

9. What government agencies or departments are working on LENR ?

See the list of Government Organizations around the world.

10. Are there any companies or organizations involved in LENR ?

More than 60 commercial and R&D organizations are pursuing the LENR research. Some have announced products for the energy markets. See the list of Organizations for details and references.

11. Is it true that LENR devices cannot be patented ? Are there any patents ?

False. Hundreds of patent applications exists on LENR. Although it is difficult to get them granted, some have been granted and many are in process. See List of important LENR patents by major corporations and individuals.

12. Are there any groups or seminars that I can join ?

See LENR research groups and follow the links for details.

13. Where can I get more news and information about happenings in the LENR world ?

Click the Latest news link on the sidebar on the left and also see the List of Websites related to LENR.

14. What books can I study to get an in depth knowledge about LENR ?

See the Books section for a list of books.

15. Is it true that there is no theoretical explanation for LENR ?

There are a number of theories about LENR. See the theories section for more.

16. Are there any conferences for LENR ?

The most famous conference is the ICCF that started 1990 and is held every year. See the ICCF section for more. LENRG, which is an effort for coordination between industry and LENR researchers, also holds conferences/meetings regularly.

17. Are any mainstream news outlets reporting on events in the LENR field ?

Yes, major events are being covered. See the media section for more.


1. What is E-Cat ?

E-Cat or Energy Catalyzer is a LENR reactor developed by Andrea Rossi of Italy. It produces energy in the form of heat, using tiny amounts of Nickel powder, Hydrogen gas and some more chemicals.

2. Who is Andrea Rossi ?

Andrea Rossi is an Italian-American engineer and inventor who has worked on developing the E-Cat over a period of many years, and who now works for Industrial Heat, LLC, which is currently testing an industrial E-Cat plant.

3. What is the amount of power produced by the E-Cat and what is its efficiency or COP ?

The 2015 version of E-Cat generates about 10KW at a COP of approx 6.

4. What are the temperatures reached in an E-Cat ?

It can reach about 1400`C. The old versions reached 100`C, which are still being used for some applications.

5. What are the energy and power densities of the E-Cat ?

These are 5.8 x 106 MJ/Kg and 2.1 x 106 W/Kg respectively. See the Third party E-Cat tests page for more information.

6. How long does the fuel last?

One gram of fuel lasts for at least 6 months of continuous operation at the peak power output.

7. Does it produce any radiation ?

No harmful radiation has been detected from an operating E-Cat. The spent fuel is also non-radioactive and can be recycled.

8. What is the size of the E-Cat reactor ?

Its core is only about 20 cm long and 2 cm in diameter. Different versions and embodiments of E-Cat exists in different sizes.

9. Who owns the E-Cat technology ?

Industrial Heat, LLC, USA owns this technology. They employ Andrea Rossi as their Chief Scientist.

10. Are the E-Cat reactor for sale ?

No. As on April 2015, one E-Cat based power plant is under field test for 1 year. Some pictures of the power plant under construction are available on Rossi's personal website.

11. What is the cost of the E-Cat ?

It's not declared yet as there are no products available in the open market. However, the cost of an early 1 MW plant based on the E-Cat was specified as USD 1.5 Million.

12. Are any E-Cat devices available for home use ?


13. Did Andrea Rossi patent his invention ?

Yes. He was granted a patent in Italy and a patent application has been made in USA by the new owner, Industrial Heat, which was rejected. See the patents list for details.

14. Are there any independent tests of the E-Cat ?

Yes. See the Third party E-Cat tests page for more information and reports.

15. Are there any replications of the E-Cat ?

Yes. Some replications by independent researchers have been claimed. See the E-Cat replication attempts page. As on April 2015, many replication experiments are ongoing.

16. Are there any theoretical explanations that support the energy production in E-Cat ?

Yes, some theoretical explanations are proposed in the 2nd independent test of the E-Cat. Rossi and Norman Cook co-authored a paper to explain the working of E-Cat in April 2015.

17. Are E-Cat based power plants in production ?

No, so far there is no formal announcement of mass production of such plants, however one plant of 1MW capacity is under test.

18. When can I buy an E-Cat ?

Its expected that the commercial launch will be in late 2015 or early 2016.

19. Where can I get the latest news and more information about the E-Cat ?

Click the Latest news link on the sidebar on the left and check out the Books section for a number of books on E-Cat.