History of LENR (Timeline)

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The main events in the history of LENR/CF are given below in brief.

1800 to 1900

  • 1844 : Michael Faraday puts forth the idea of a central Nucleus in atoms.
  • 1866 : First observation of diffusion of hydrogen in metals by Thomas Graham. He called the phenomenon “occlusion”. [1]

1901 to 1950

  • 1909 : While working at General Electric the Nobel Chemist Irving Langmuir noted an excess of heat production in work he was doing on atomic hydrogen plasmas created between tungsten electrodes. Physicist Neils Bohr insisted that Langmuir’s results could not be correct since they violated conservation of energy and persuaded Langmuir that publishing them would ruin his career.[2]
  • 1911 : Discovery of atomic nucleus by Ernest Rutherford.
  • 1922 : Wendt and Irion reported nuclear reactions in exploding wires. The transmuted nuclear products emerged after a large current pulse was passed through a Tungsten wire filament which exploded. [3]
  • 1926 : Fritz Paneth and Kurt Peters in Berlin first claim to have observed the fusion of hydrogen under pressure to form helium in finely divided palladium metal. [4] The following year they retract the report as mistaken.
  • 1927 : Swedish scientist John Tandberg proposes using electrolysis to force hydrogen into palladium metal. He was denied a patent on cold fusion using this method. [5]
  • 1929 : Cöhn demonstrates that hydrogen in metals migrates toward the negative terminal.
  • 1932 : Deuterium was discovered by H. C. Urey, F. G. Brickwedde, and G. M. Murphy.
  • 1934 : Sonoluminescence was discovered by German physicists H. Frenzel and H. Schultes at the University of Cologne.[6]
  • 1950 : Martin Fleischmann awarded Doctorate in Chemistry by the Imperial Collage of the University of London.

1951 to 1990

  • 1951 : A young Phd Student, Srernglass observed some interesting neutron production in his experiments and reported it to Albert Einstein, but did not publish the results.
  • 1956 : The term Cold fusion was first used by Physicist Luis Alvarez. Nowadays it is properly known as Muon-catalyzed fusion.
  • 1957 : Filimonenko Ivan Stepanovich of Russia proposes a system to generate energy using heavy water and Palladium. [7]
  • 1967 : Martin Fleischmann accepts Faraday Chair in electrochemistry at Southampton University.
  • 1972 : Fleischmann collects together materials to drive deuterium into palladium very hard.
  • 1975 : Stanley Pons admitted to postgraduate studies at Southampton University. Receives Doctorate two years later.
  • 1983 : Pons accepts position in the chemistry department at University of Utah. Fleischmann and Pons begin their collaboration
  • 1984 : Fleischmann and Pons plan to try an electrolytic cell experiment to fuse deuterium inside a palladium lattice. Electrolyte temperature rise is to be the parameter to watch.
  • 1985 :
    • Fleischmann elected member of the Royal Society of London.
    • Large release of energy from early cold fusion experiment in laboratory in the north Henry Eyring Building at University of Utah.
  • 1987 :
    • July : Scientific American magazine published Cold Nuclear Fusion by Jones and Rafelski.
  • 1988 :
    • Pons becomes Chairman of the Chemistry Department.
    • August : F&P submit a proposal to fund their cold fusion studies to the DOE.
    • September : DOE selects S. Jones at Brigham Young University to evaluate the proposal.
    • September-November : M. Hawkins, graduate student in the Department of Chemistry, begins experiments with the Fleischmann and Pons designed Dewar cell.
  • 1989:
    • February: Fleischmann and Pons undertake nuclear measurements to back up excess heat results.
    • March 22: Preliminary Note manuscript received by the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry.
    • March 23: Press announcement of cold nuclear fusion at the University of Utah.
    • April 10: Publication of the Preliminary Note.
    • April 18: F. Scaramuzzi announces the detection of neutron emission from titanium infused with deuterium gas and then temperature cycled.
    • April 24: Secretary of Energy Admiral James Watkins forms a panel on cold fusion under joint chairmanship of J. Huizenga and N. Ramsey.
    • April 28: Professors Ronald R. Parker and Ronald Ballinger of MIT, US give interview to Nick Tate of the Boston Herald, planting anti-cold fusion story. [8]
    • May 1: The American Physical Society spring meeting at Baltimore. Koonin reports no possibility of d-d fusion producing the excess heat and comments on the mental and professional status of Fleischmann and Pons. N. S. Lewis reports no evidence of heat or nuclear effects from his experiments at Caltech. He also reports that Fleischmann and Pons did not obtain excess heat in their experiments in Utah. Their faulty results are attributed to a lack of stirring in their cells.
    • May 8: American Electrochemical Society meeting session on cold fusion research at Los Angeles, CA. Fourth press conference: Bockris, Appleby, Fleischmann, and Pons. (N. S. Lewis takes a microphone, stands on chair and asks “loaded” questions.)
    • May 18: Petrasso report in Nature shows fatal flaws in Fleischmann and Pons claim to have detected neutrons.
    • May 23: DOE sponsored meeting on cold fusion reports.
    • July: Publication of PFC/JA-89-34 cold fusion experiments report by a group of MIT scientists, based on work funded by DoE contract No. DE-AC0278ET51013. Mid-July initial draft of DoE ERAB Cold Fusion Panel report is negative.
    • August 17: N. S. Lewis’s report published in Nature. Searches for low-temperature nuclear fusion of deuterium in palladium. Nature (London), 1989. 340(6234): p. 525
    • September: Oriani submits anomalous power corroboration report to Nature.
    • October 16: EPRI/NSF meeting in Washington. N. S. Lewis hears Fleischmann report on excess heat generation and raises no argument about the validity of the work.
    • November 1: Final DoE ERAB Cold Fusion Panel report is issued. It cites negative MIT PFC report—“Albagli et al.” as the first reference. (By contrast, positive results from U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center are omitted.)[9]
    • December 21: Fleischmann and Pons manuscript of anomalous power measurements received by its publisher, the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry.
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Guruswamy from USA. Excess power of 8 W was reported.[10]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Kainthla from USA. Excess power of 1.1 W was reported.[11]
    • Dr. Randell Mills discovered that the hydrogen atom could be collapsed below its ground state and give up significant amounts of energy.


  • 1990 :
    • January: Nature decides to not publish Oriani’s confirmation of the anomalous power phenomenon first reported by Fleischmann and Pons.
    • January 26: Oriani informed referees do pass his paper for publication, but Washington, DC, editor rejects it.
    • March: First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. Huggins reports 5.6 watts peak power generated. McKubre reports a D/Pd threshold effect.
    • March: Nature says “farewell” to cold fusion.
    • July 25: Fleischmann and Pons’s 56-page seminal paper is published. It describes anomalous power generation and its calorimetry.[12] [13] [14]
    • August 15: Meeting with Dr. Stanley Luckhardt (MIT Plasma Fusion Center) and independent scientist, electrochemist Dr. Vesco Noninski, in Dr. Luckhardt's office. Within a week Dr. Noninski is challenging the analysis of the MIT PFC calorimetry on analytical grounds.[15]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Appleby from USA. Excess power of 0.049 W was reported.[16]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Hutchinson from USA. Excess power of 3 W was reported.[17]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Lewis from Sweden. Excess power of 1 W was reported.[18]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Yang from Taiwan. Excess power of 12.9 W was reported.[19]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Zhang from China. Excess power of 0.015 W was reported.[20]

1991 to 2000

  • 1991 :
    • January 19: Eugene Mallove discovers the July 1989 down-shifted MIT excess-heat curve, which later became the subject of controversy. He finds that excess heat was indicated by the raw data from the MIT replication of F&P experiment, but in the published data the axis was shifted to nullify the excess energy gain. [21]
    • April 25:Dr Randell Mills first announced his hydrino theory, in a press conference in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA, as an explanation for the cold fusion phenomena.
    • June 7: Dr. Mallove resigns from his job at MIT in protest. His requests for calorimetry data for MIT's experiment of alleged failed replication of F&P experiment is turned down by Dr. Stan Luckhardt of MIT. His letters to MIT President Charles M. Vest requesting for examination of this issue remain unanswered. MIT PFC Director Ronald Parker provides the data, which Mallove investigates and finds manipulted. [22]
    • Spring: W. Hansen, professor of physics at Utah State University, Logan, prepares an important report for the Utah State Fusion/Energy Council supportive of excess heat.
    • June: Second ACCF held at Villa Olmo, Como, Italy.
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Bertalot from Italy. Excess power of 0.08 W was reported.[23]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Bush from US. Excess power of 6 W was reported.[24] [25]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Gozzi from Italy. Excess power of 12.8 W was reported.[26] [27] [28]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Yun from Korea. Excess power of 0.24 W was reported.[29]
  • 1992 :
    • January 2: Electrochemist Dr. Andrew Riley dies in cold fusion explosion at SRI International. Dr. Brian Ahern (an MIT graduate) tried to warn SRI of danger, but telephone call did not go through. [30]
    • February 9: Eugene Mallove sends new evidence of scientific misconduct to President Vest based on report of MIT graduate Dr. Mitchell Swartz’s independent investigation. Mallove demands thorough investigations. Dr. Luckhardt redefines the original objectives of the experiment. [31]
    • March 19: NIH physicist Dr. Charles McCutchen sends a letter to President Vest of MIT complaining about ethical problems with MIT PFC experiment. No action is taken in response. [32]
    • May: Publication of MIT PFC Technical Report (PFC/RR-92-7) “Technical Appendix to D. Albagli et al. Journal of Fusion Energy article” (original PFC report had 16 authors but this was by a single author, Luckhardt) Error limits of MIT PFC calorimetry are further expanded and the nature of the experiment was further redefined to deflect data mishandling accusation. [33]
    • July: Wilson, et al., publish substantial critique of the Fleischmann and Pons paper of July 1990. Fleischmann and Pons’s defense is published concurrently.
    • October 21: ICCF-3, Nagoya, Japan
    • November: Storms reviews the field to date in an extensive summary article in Fusion Technology (20, 1991, p. 433).
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Bertalot from Italy. Excess power of 3 W was reported.[34]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Hasegawa from Japan. Excess power of 0.5 W was reported.[35] [36]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Storms from USA. Excess power of 7.5 W was reported.[37] [38]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Takahashi from Japan. Excess power of 130 W was reported.[39] [40]
  • 1993 :
    • December: Fourth ICCF at Maui, Hawaii. More definitive data on D/Pd loading threshold is presented.
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Okamoto from Japan. Excess power of 7 W was reported.[41]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Ota from Japan. Excess power of 11.3 W was reported.[42]
  • 1994:
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Aoki from Japan. Excess power of 205 W was reported.[43]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Celani from Italy. Excess power of 5 W was reported.[44] [45]
    • Replication of F&P experiment by Hugo from USA. Excess power of 23 W was reported.[46]
    • December: By this time, anomalous power (excess heat) was widely confirmed by replication in many independent laboratories using different types of cells and calorimeters.
  • 1995 :
    • Spring: Dr. Edmund Storms reviews the field to date in the Journal of Scientific Exploration(10, no. 2, 1996,p. 185). Abstract reads : More than 190 studies reporting evidence for the "cold fusion" effect are evaluated. New work has answered criticisms by eliminating many of the suggested errors. Evidence for large and reproducible energy generation as well as various nuclear reactions, in addition to fusion, from a variety of environments and methods is accumulating. The field can no longer be dismissed by invoking obvious error or prosaic explanations.
    • Spring: Dr. G. Preparata published QED Coherence in Matter(World Scientific Int. Publisher, May 1995).
    • Spring: Dr. N. Hoffman’s book, A Dialogue on Chemically Induced Nuclear Effects,is published.
    • April: Fifth ICCF held in Monaco.
    • December 5: George Miley and Dennis Cravens of Clean Energy Technologies, Inc. (CETI), of Dallas Texas, US, demonstrate a 1 KW cold fusion reactor, invented by James Patterson at the Power-Gen '95 Americas power industry trade show in Anaheim California US. During the demonstration, between 0.1 and 1.5 watts of electricity was input, and the cell output 450 to 1,300 watts of heat. [47]
  • 1996 : NASA released a report describing experiments using a BLP electrolytic cell. Power gains ranging from 1.06 to 1.68 of the input power were reported.
  • 1998 : Leslie Case presented his gas loading LENR device during ICCF-7, which was later reproduced at SRI. [48]

2001 to 2010

  • 2002:
    • March : Rusi Taleyarkhan demonstrates Sonoluminescence with evidence of fusion. The discovery was reported in the journal Science. [49] [50]
    • November : NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I study was conducted at Rowan University, led by mechanical engineering professor Anthony Marchese, to investigate the BlackLight Process for use in spacecraft propulsion. The team successfully replicated and confirmed results obtained by BlackLight, Inc., including the observation of line broadening and excess heat (although the final report stated "Additional studies are required to rule out all other possible explanations other than 'excess power' for these observations." and asked for more funding) [51]
    • A. De Ninno et al of ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Italy performs an experiment showing clear evidence of production of 4He in an electrolytic cell with heavy water and a Pd cathode. They also saw excess heat. This report, famously known as Report 41 was rejected by scientific establishment and was refused publication by many journals. [52] [53] [54]
  • 2004:
    • May 14 : Eugene Mallove was murdered in Norwich, Connecticut, US in his parental home. The incident happened after, due to persistent efforts of Dr. Mallove, the U.S. Department of Energy ordered a panel of scientists to review existing research on cold fusion to see whether it is worth pursuing. [55]
  • 2008:
    • October 20: Blacklight Power announces that Rowan University has replicated their 1 kW and 50 kW processes and validated the technology. [56]
  • 2009:
    • April 17: CBS program "60 Minutes - Cold Fusion Is Hot Again" broadcasted. [57]
    • October 15: Andrea Rossi's patent application No.: PCT/IT2008/000532 published.
  • 2010:
    • February: Andrea Rossi's Journal of Nuclear Physics, an online journal, started. [58]
    • Edmund Storms publishes Status of cold fusion(2010). This paper provides a brief overview of the major discoveries and some of the attempts at an explanation.[59]

2011

  • January 14: Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi introduce the Energy Catalyzer at a news conference at the University of Bologna, Italy.[60] [61]
  • March 25: Professor Bolotov of Ukraine demonstrated his Zirconium based cold fusion reactor. He claims this system could have an input of 5 kW and an output of 200 kW. [62]
  • March 29: Hanno Essén and Sven Kullander participated in a test of Energy Catalyzer in Bologna, Italy. A total energy of about 25 kWh was generated. [63]
  • April 14: The blog E-Cat World is started by Frank Acland. [64]
  • April 28: Rossi's E-Cat was tested in presence of NyTeknik's Mats Lewan. The total net energy developed was calculated to be 5.6 and 6.9 kWh. [65]
  • June 23: Defkalion Green Technologies held a press conference to formally introduce themselves as the Greek, Balkan and worldwide representatives of Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat), which was announced to be marketed as the Hyperion reactor. [66]
  • August 8: Defkalion Green Technologies terminates business contracts with Andrea Rossi. [67]
  • October 6: Rossi conducts a test of his E-Cat reactor in Bologna, Italy. Many scientists and reporters were present. An excess power of about 3 kW was produced and 10.5 kWh of energy was produced in self sustained mode (no input power) [68] [69]

2012

  • May 5: Dr. Peter Hagelstein of MIT claims that his NANOR reactor is running since many months producing over 14 times the input energy. [70]
  • August 3: Death of Martin Fleischmann.
  • August 6: Francesco Celani demonstrates excess heat from his Nickel Hydrogen reactor at NIWeek, a trade show of National Instruments. It produced an average of 10 Watts of excess heat. [71]
  • August 7: Rossi's E-Cat tested by Fabio Penon, an Italian nuclear engineer. Maximum temperature reached 1200°C, average output power was 1.28 KW. Hot-Cat is seen for the first time. [72]
  • September: Brillouin Energy Corporatoin was granted a patent for their hot-water boiler technology in China. This patent application was rejected in US. [73]
  • September: Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project (MFMP) is launched. The project aims to achieve an undeniable proof of LENR.

2013

  • January 16: The European Patent office granted a patent to Francesco Piantelli for his invention of a process for producing energy from a nickel-hydrogen reaction. [74]
  • May 16: Publication of "Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device" (third party test of E-Cat by Levi et al.)[75]
  • June 22: Death of Sergio Focardi, a partner of Rossi, who helped him greatly with research and development of the E-Cat.
  • July 23: DGT performs a live public demonstration of their Hyperion reactor. [76]
  • August 5: Dennis Cravens demonstrates cold fusion using a simple experiment in National Instrument's NI-Week show. A metal ball containing fuel remains 4°C warmer than a control metal ball, both placed in a bath of 80°C. [77] [78]

2014

  • January 17: BLP's water fuel pellet technology is validated by a third party. [79]
  • January 24: Industrial Heat acquires Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat technology. Rossi joins as Chief Scientist there. [80]
  • January 28: BLP demonstrates their energetic plasma technology to a selected audience. MegaWatts of output power and density of billions of watts per liter were claimed.
  • January 31: Sven Kullander, professor emeritus of High Energy Physics at Uppsala University, dies at the age of 78.
  • March 21: LENR Colloquium held in MIT, USA, on the 25th anniversary of the announcement of the discovery of cold fusion by scientists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons. Clean Planet CEO Yoshino presented future plans for their 1kW and 10kW LENR reactor prototypes based on Tadahiko Mizuno's technology.
  • April 16: Nickel-Hydrogen Research Center in the Tianjin Huayuan Industrial Park in Tianjin, China opens. Tom Darden, CEO of Cherokee Investment Partners and Chairman of Industrial Heat, LLC was present at the opening ceremony. [81][82]
  • July 25: BLP demonstrates their new SunCell technology to a selected group of investors.
  • October 8: Release of report "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel" (third party test of E-Cat by Levi et al.). The report shows a maximum COP of 3.75 and changes in isotopic ratios of Nickel and Lithium. [83]
  • November 12: Microsoft founder Bill Gates visited the laboratories of ENEA, the Italian National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development in Frascati, Italy to attend a presentation on LENR. [84] [85]
  • December 25: Russian Researcher Alexander Parkhomov presents a report of his successful replication of Rossi's E-Cat. The COP reached is 2.58. [86]

2015

  • January 31: Parkhomov publishes more results for his new successful replication experiments of the E-Cat. Upgrades his reactors and test setup. [87]
  • February 19: Andrea Rossi launches his new website and releases the pictures of first commercial 1 MW (heat) LENR power plant. [88] [89]
  • February 24: Current Science publishes a special section on LENR with 33 papers by major LENR researchers from all over the world. [90]
  • March 19: Parkhomov achieves continuous operation of his replica of the E-Cat for 3 days. Temperatures reached 1200°C and the COP was measured to be 3.2. [91]
  • March 26: Parkhomov presents his new results in a seminar at People’s Friendship University in Moscow, declaring: "Produced power is at least tens times more than chemically possible, so this is some nuclear or yet unknown power". [92] [93] [94]
  • March 30: Clean Planet Inc. and Tohoku University announced the launch of Clean Energy Research Lab at Tohoku University on April 1st, 2015. Partly funded by government of Japan, the mission of this lab is to develop a clean, safe and abundant form of energy and to develop commercial generators based on LENR before 2020. [95]
  • April 06: Rossi and Norman Cook publish a theoretical paper explaining the mechanism of E-Cat. [96]
  • April 07: A meeting of scientists was held in Bengaluru, India, initiated by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gov. of India, on the matter of LENR. The decisions taken at the meeting was that four groups of institutions and scientists would get into cold fusion research and there would be an informal oversight committee. [97]
  • April 10: The LENRG event, an ecosystem organized by LENR-Cities, took place in Milano, Italy. Representatives from Airbus attended the event and offered their high efficiency engine for testing and validation of LENR reactors. New labs for research were proposed and participation of a few universities was announced. [98] [99]
  • April 13-17: ICCF-19 took place in Padua, Italy. Among roughly 450 participants and presenters, were present well known personalities such as Tom Darden (Cherokee), Lowell Wood and Carl Page Jr. For the first time, the office of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Italy awarded its High Patronage to the ICCF-19 event. [100]
  • April 13: Tom Darden, CEO of Cherokee Investment Partners and chairman of Industrial Heat, LLC, gave a speech at the ICCF19 meeting in Padua, Italy where he explained his investment in LENR companies. He said his goal was to help eliminate pollution and provide abundant energy.[101]
  • August 25: USPTO granted a patent to Andrea Rossi. The patent, titled Fluid Heater, revealed the secret fuel composition and many more details regarding the E-Cat reactor. Ni is revealed as the catalyst and Li as fuel. This marks a significant achievement for Rossi. [102] [103] [104]
  • September 26, 2015: An IEEE Meeting on LENR Phenomena and Potential Applications with Professor Peter Hagelstein and Dr. Louis DeChiaro was held at Teradyne in North Reading, Massachusetts. [105]
  • September 27, 2015: Fortune, an American magazine, publishes an interview with Cherokee Investment Partners CEO Tom Darden, about his involvement in the funding of LENR technologies. [106]
  • September 30, 2015: An European patent Method and Apparatus for Generating Energy by Nuclear Reactions of Hydrogen Adsobred by Orbital Capture on a Nanocrystalline Structure of a Metal (EP2368252) by Francisco Piantelli was revoked because of a challenge from Leonardo Corporation of Andrea Rossi. [107]
  • October 1, 2015: The British investment company, Woodford Investment Management LLP (publicly traded) confirms that they have invested in Industrial Heat a large sum of money after a due diligence of 2.5 years. The investment is rumored to be around US$20 million. [108]
  • October 4, 2015: A paper published in the International Journal of Unconventional Science, written by I.N. Stepanov, Y.I. Malakhov and Chi Nguyen Quoc, of Moscow State University confirms Rossi and Parkhomov Experiments in Nickel-LAH System. COP obtained is 2.47. [109]
  • October 6, 2015: Louis DeChiaro of US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) publishes important information on replicating Pons and Fleischmann experiment of 1989. He informs that the Naval Research Labs (NRL) conducted extensive research on cold fusion and eventually succeeded in replicating the effect in a reactor called Eve. He described the main causes of failure of many other replication attempts by others. [110]
  • October 15, 2015: 11th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals took place on 15-16 October 2015 at Airbus, Toulouse, France. Many important papers on LENR were presented including one by the Airbus Group's Chief Scientist, Jean-Francois Geneste. [111] [112] [113]
  • October 16, 2015: Rickard Lundin and Hans Lidgren, two top level Swedish scientists, present their theory in a paper called Nuclear Spallation and Neutron Capture Induced by Ponderomotive Wave Forcing at the 11th International Workshop on Anomalies in 
Hydrogen Loaded Metals, hosted by Airbus in Toulouse, France. [114]
  • October 19, 2015: Four researchers, namely, A.N. Ozernoi, M.F. Vereschak, I.A. Ermakova and I.V. Hromushin, at Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan report excess heat in Nickel-Hydrogen systems. An excess of 21 W of power and 2 kWh of total excess energy was reported.[115]
  • November 9, 2015: Brillouin Energy Corporation presented their LENR technology at Capitol Hill in US. Attendees included Members of Congress, congressional aides, federal government officials, industry representatives, and citizen's groups concerned with the federal government’s progress on developing clean energy solutions. [116] [117]
  • December 1, 2015: Brillouin Energy Corporation announced that a third party validation of their LENR based Hydrogen Hot Tube (HHT) Boiler System reactor core modules was completed successfully. The investigation was headed by Michael Halem who stated - "I was able to confirm, with a high degree of confidence, excess energy output above chemical and likely due to a nuclear reaction." [118]
  • December 26, 2015: Andrea Rossi announces on the the Journal of Nuclear Physics that direct electrical production in useful and practical quantities has been achieved in testing of the E-Cat X. [119]

2016

  • February 17, 2016: Andrea Rossi announced on this blog that the 1 year test of a 1MW capacity E-Cat Plant has been completed and a report will be published in a month. Mats Lewan wrote that his sources are reporting the test as successful. [121] [122]
  • February 24, 2016: MFMP claims a successful replication of the E-Cat and publishes a recipe for experimentation in brief. The basis of the claim is the detection of a large gamma ray burst during the Glowstick 5.2 experiment, leading to the conclusion that some nuclear processes have taken place. [123] [124] [125] [126]
  • March 29, 2016: Andrea Rossi posted on The Journal of Nuclear Physics that he and Industrial Heat had received a report prepared by a third party evaluator of the year-long test of the 1MW E-Cat plant that concluded on February 17th, 2016. He said that he was "very pleased" with the results of the report. Rossi stated that a version of the report would be made public within 10 days. [127]
  • April 6, 2016: Leonardo Corporation issued a press release stating that the 352 day test of the 1MW E-Cat plant had been a success, generating "energy at a rate in excess of six (6) times the amount of energy consumed by the plant, often generating energy exceeding fifty (50) times the amount of energy consumed during the same period." [128] In addition, the press released announced that Leonardo Corporation was suing Industrial Heat, LLC stating that IH had "breached the terms of its license agreement and misappropriated Leonardo Corporation's intellectual property relating to the E-Cat." A lawsuit has been filed in the Florida Southern District Court by Leonardo Corp.[129]

References

Most of the events from 1950-1995 are taken from the book : Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed by Charles G. Beaudette
  1. Thomas Graham Biography.
  2. A Short History of Hydrogen Thermal Anomalies
  3. A. Widom, Y.N. Srivastava and L. Larsen, Energetic Electrons and Nuclear Transmutations in Exploding Wires
  4. F. Paneth, Kurt Peters. Über die Verwandlung von Wasserstoff in Helium. Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft. Berlin, Band=59, 1926. Seiten=2039–2048. DOI=10.1002/cber.19260590860. ISSN=0365-9488
  5. A Report of the Energy Research Advisory Board to the United States Department of Energy, Nov 1989
  6. Report on Sonoluminescence Research
  7. Transcription of Russian Cold Fusion Video Documenting 1957 Start
  8. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.5
  9. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.5
  10. Guruswamy, S. J. G. Byrne, J. Li, and M. E. Wadsworth;, “Metallurgical Aspects of the Electrochemical Loading of Palladium with Deuterium,” (Workshop on CF Phenomena, Santa Fe, NM, May 23, 1989).
  11. Bockris, John O’M., N. J. C. Packham, et al., “Sporadic Observation of the Fleischmann–Pons Heat Effect,” (Electrochemica Acta,vol. 34, no. 9, 1989), p. 1315.
  12. Fleischmann, Martin, Stanley Pons, Mark R. Anderson, Lian Jun Li, and Marvin Hawkins, “Calorimetry of the Palladium—Deuterium—Heavy Water System” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 287, July 25, 1990), p. 293.
  13. Fleischmann, Martin, Stanley Pons, and Marvin Hawkins, “Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium,” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry,261-2A, April 10, 1989), p. 301.
  14. Fleischmann, Martin, and Stanley Pons, “Heat After Death,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology,vol. 26, no. 4T, pt.2), p. 87.
  15. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.5
  16. Appleby, A. John, J. Kim Young, Oliver J. Murphy, and Supramaniam Srinivasan,“Anomalous Calorimetric Results During Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Palladium from Alkaline Deuteroxide Electrolyte,” First Annual ICCF-1, Nat. CF Institute, SLC, Utah, 1990), p. 32.
  17. Hutchinson, D. P., J. Bullock, C. A. Bennet, G. L. Powell, and R. K. Richards, “Initial Calorimetry Experiments in the Physics Division—ORNL,” (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab, ORNL/TM-11356, May 1990).
  18. Lewis, Derek; and Kurt Skold, “A Phenomenological Study of the Fleischmann–Pons Effect,” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry,294, November 9, 1990), p. 275.
  19. Yang, C. -S., C. -Y. Liang, T. -P. Perng, L. -J. Yuan, C. -M. Wang, C. -C. Wang,“Observation of Excess Heat and Tritium on Electrolysis of D2O,” (Proc. CF Symp.,8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf., July 22, 1990), p. 95.
  20. Zhang, Z. L., B. Z. Yan, M. G. Wang, J. Gu, and F. Tan, “Calorimetric Observation Combined with the Detection of Particle Emissions During the Electrolysis of Heavy Water,” (Proc. Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium /Solid Systems, Provo, Utah, October 22, 1990), p. 572
  21. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.5 and 11
  22. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.5 and 11
  23. Bertalot, L., L. Bettinali, F. De Marco, V. Violante, P. De Logu, T. Dikonimos Makris, and A. La Barbera, “Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells with Pd Cathodes,” (S.I.F.,“The Science of CF”,Proceedings ACCF-2, June 29,1991, Como, Italy), p. 3.
  24. Bush, Robert T., “Cold ‘Fusion’: The Transition Resonance Model Fits Data on Excess Heat, Predicts Optimal Trigger Points, and Suggests Nuclear Reaction Scenarios,” (Fusion Technology,19, 1991). p. 313.
  25. Eagleton, R. D., and R. T. Bush, “Calorimetric Experiments Supporting the Transmission Resonance Model for CF,” (Fusion Technology,20, 1991), p. 239.
  26. Gozzi, D., P. L. Cignini, M. Tomellini, S. Frullani, F. Garabaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice, and G. M. Urciuoli, “Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-Related Events in CF,” (Proc. ACCF-2, Como, Italy, June 29, 1991The Science of CF,vol. 33, (T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, eds.), p. 21.
  27. Gozzi, D., P. L. Cignini, L. Petrucci, M. Tomellini, and G. De Maria, “Evidences for Associated Heat Generation and Nuclear Products Release in Pd Heavy-Water Electrolysis,” (Il Nuovo Cimento,103, 1990), p. 143.
  28. Gozzi, D., R. Caputo, P. L. Cignini, M. Tomellini, G. Gigli, G. Balducci, E. Cisbani, S. Frullani, F. Garabaldi, M. Jodice, and G. M. Urciuoli, “Helium-4 Quantitative Measurements in the Gas Phase of CF Electrochemical Cells,” (EPRI, Proceedings: ICCF-4, vol. I), p. 6-1.
  29. Yun, K-S., J-B. Ju, B-W. Cho, S-Y. Park, “Calorimetric Observation of heat Production During Electrolysis of 0.1 M LiOD_D2O Solution,” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry,306, 1991), p. 279.
  30. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.6
  31. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.6
  32. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.6
  33. Infinite Energy, Issue 24, 1999, MIT Special Report, p.6
  34. Bertalot, L., F. De Marco, A. De Ninno, A. La Barbera, F. Scaramuzzi, V. Violanle, and P. Zeppa, “Study of Deuterium Charging in Palladium by the Electrolysis of Heavy Water: Search for Heat and Nuclear Ashes,” H. Ikegami, ed., (University Academy Press,Frontiers of CF,1993). p. 365.
  35. Hasegewa, N., N. Hayakawa, Y. Tsuchida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observations of Excess Heat During Electrolysis of 1M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell,” (EPRI, Proc. ICCF-4, vol. I, December 6, 1993), p. 3-1.
  36. Hasegawa, N., K. Kunimatsu, T. Ohi, and T. Terasawa, “Observation of Excess Heat During Electrolysis of 1M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell,” H. Ikegami, ed., (Univ. Academy Press,Frontiers of CF,1993), p. 377.
  37. Storms, Edmund, “Measurement of Excess Heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-Type Electrolytic Cell Using Palladium Sheet,” (Fusion Technology,23, 1993), p. 230.
  38. Storms, Edmund, “Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology,vol. 26, no. 4T, pt 2, 1994), p. 96.
  39. Takahashi, A., T. Iida, T. Takeuchi, H. Miyamaru, and A. Mega, “Anomalous Excess Heat by D2O/Pd Cell Under L-H Mode Electrolysis,” H. Ikegami, ed., (Universal Academy Press,Frontiers of CF, 1993), p. 79.
  40. Takahashi, Akito, “Nuclear Products by D2O/Pd Electrolysis and Multibody Fusion,” (Elsevier,Proc Fourth Int ISEM Symposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in Electromagnetic Fields, Nagoya, Japan 26, 1922, Supplement to vol. 3 ofInt. J. of Applied Electromagnetics in Materials).
  41. Okamoto, M., Y. Yoshinaga, M. Aida, and T. Kusunoki, “Excess Heat Generation Voltage Deviation and Neutron Emission in D2O-LiOD Systems,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology,vol. 26, no.4T, pt.2, 1994), p. 176.
  42. Ota, K., H. Yoshitake, O. Yamazaki, M. Kuratsuka, K. Yamaki, K. Ando, Y. Iida, and N. Kamiya, “Heat Measurement of Water Electrolysis Using Pd Cathode and the Electrochemistry,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology,vol. 26, no. 4T, pt 2, 1994), p. 138.
  43. Aoki, T., Y. Kurata, and H. Ebihara, “Study of Concentration of Helium and Tritium in Electrolytic Cells with Excess Heat Generation,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology,vol.26, no. 4T, pt 2), p. 214.
  44. Celani, F. A., A. Spallone, P. Tripoli, A. Nuvoli, A. Petrocchi, D. DiGioacchino, M. Boutet, P.Marini, and V. Di Stefano, “High Power Microsecond Pulsed Electrolysis for High Deuterium Loading in Pd Plates” (Trans. of Fusion Technology,vol. 26, no. 4T, pt.2), p. 127.
  45. Celani, F., A. Spallone, P. Tripoli, and A. Nuvoli, “Measurements of Excess Heat and Tritium During Self-Biased Pulsed Electrolysis of Pd-D2O,” H. Ikegami, ed.,(University Academy Press,Frontiers of C.F., 1993), p. 93.
  46. Hugo, Mark, “A Home CF Experiment,” (EPRI, Proceedings ICCF-4, vol. 2, December 12, 1993), p. 22-1.
  47. COLD FUSION RESEARCH: MODELS AND POTENTIAL BENEFITS
  48. Infinite Energy Device Update: Progress in Les Case's Catalytic Fusion, Published in IE Volume 4, Issue #23 by Gene Mallove July, 1999
  49. Evidence bubbles over to support tabletop nuclear fusion device
  50. Additional Evidence of nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation R.P. Taleyarkhan1, J.S. Cho, C.D. West, R. T. Lahey, Jr., R.I. Nigmatulin, and R.C. Block
  51. THE BLACKLIGHT ROCKET ENGINE, A Phase I Study Funded by the NIAC CP 01-02 Advanced Aeronautical/Space Concept Studies Program
  52. A. De Ninno et al, Experimental evidence of 4He production in a cold fusion experiment
  53. Report 41 DeNinno by ENEA and rejection, LENR-Forums
  54. A. De Ninno, E. Del Giudice, and , A. Frattolillo, Excess Heat and Calorimetric Calculation: Evidence of Coherent Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter at Room Temperature, Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, Chapter 7, pp 127–152
  55. Police investigate slaying of N.H. man in Conn. - By Associated Press May 16, 2004
  56. Rowan University Validation of BLP technology
  57. 60 Minutes - Cold Fusion Is Hot Again
  58. Journal of Nuclear Physics, Feb 2010 Archive
  59. Edmund Storms, Status of cold fusion(2010)
  60. January 15th Focardi and Rossi Press Conference (Journal of Nuclear Physics)
  61. Cold fusion: Observing researcher wants more tests, Ny Teknik, 6 Feb 2011
  62. Zirconium Flavored Cold Fusion from the Ukraine, March 30, 2011
  63. Swedish physicists on the E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”, Ny Teknik, 6 April 2011
  64. Welcome to E-Cat World
  65. Ny Teknik tested the energy catalyzer, Ny Teknik , May 2, 2011
  66. Defkalion Press Conference in Athens Introduces Rossi Energy Catalyzer by Marianne Macy
  67. DGT Statement, Ny Teknik
  68. TV: New test of the E-cat enhances proof of heat, NyTeknik
  69. Detailed report by Mats Lewan on E-Cat test at Bologna
  70. Hagelstein: Public Invited to See Continuing Cold Fusion Demonstration at MIT, E-Cat World
  71. Celani Demonstrates Excess Heat from Nickel Hydrogen Reactor at NIWeek, E-Cat World
  72. High Temperature Energy Catalyzer Test Report
  73. Brillouin Energy patent granted in China
  74. Piantelli's patent application
  75. Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device Giuseppe Levi, Evelyn Foschi, Torbjörn Hartman, Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson, Lars Tegnér, Hanno Essén
  76. Introducing Defkalion LENR, Livestream webcast
  77. Dennis Cravens Reports on NI Week Cold Fusion Demo, September 19, 2013, E-Cat World
  78. Cold Fusion at NI Week 2013, Dennis Cravens and Rod Gimpel, Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue 111, Sept/Oct 2013
  79. Report by Nick Glumac on BLP test.
  80. PRESS RELEASE: Industrial Heat Has Acquired Andrea Rossi’s E-Cat Technology, E-Cat World
  81. Tom Darden Involved in Opening of Nickel-Hydrogen Energy Research Center in Tianjin China, E-Cat World
  82. Chinese Icebank web site news article about the event.
  83. "Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel" Giuseppe Levi, Evelyn Foschi, Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson, Lars Tegnér, Hanno Essén
  84. Bill Gates Briefed at ENEA Research Labs in Italy on LENR, E-Cat World
  85. Article in La Stampa
  86. Parkhomov's E-Cat replication report
  87. New Report From Alexander Parkhomov With New Data, Details, E-Cat World
  88. Andrea Rossi Releases Photos of 1MW LENR / Cold Fusion E-Cat Plant, E-Cat World
  89. Pictures of 1 MW plant
  90. Current Science Volume 108 - Issue 04  : 25 February 2015
  91. Parkhomov Breakthrough , E-Cat World 19 March 2015
  92. Parkhomov Report Thread, E-Cat World, March 27, 2015
  93. Parkhomov Speaks, MFMP Facebook Post
  94. 26.03.2015 четвертый доклад о Hot Cat Пархомова А.Г. в РУДН, Alexander Parkhomov Presentation Video on YouTube, March 26, 2015
  95. Clean Planet Inc. Press release, March 30, 2015
  96. On the Nuclear Mechanisms Underlying the Heat Production by the “E-Cat”, Norman D. Cook and Andrea Rossi.
  97. Scientists warming up to ‘cold fusion’, see potential in ‘other nuclear’ energy, The Hindu BusinessLine, April 9, 2015
  98. Report from LENR-G Meeting in Milan and Airbus Involvement (AlainCo), E-Cat World, April 11, 2015
  99. LENRG G-Day Milano : Airbus and LENR, LENR Forums
  100. ICCF-19 Website
  101. Tom Darden’s Speech on LENR at ICCF19: ‘We’ve Reached a Tipping point’ E-Cat World, April 13, 2015
  102. Andrea Rossi Granted E-Cat Patent by US Patent Office, E-Cat World, August 25, 2015
  103. Rossi has been granted US patent on the E-Cat — fuel mix specified, AN Impossible Invention, August 25, 2015
  104. United States Patent 9,115,913 Fluid Heater , Rossi
  105. IEEE Meeting on “LENR Phenomenon” well attended, Cold Fusion Now, September 26, 2015
  106. Tom Darden on LENR: Interview in Fortune Magazine, E-Cat World, September 27, 2015
  107. Piantelli European Patent Revoked after Challenge by Leonardo Corporation, E-Cat World, September 30, 2015
  108. Woodford Equity Income Fund Invested in Industrial Heat after 2.5 Years of Due Diligence (Update: ‘Long and Rigorous’ Due Diligence Process), E-Cat World, October 1, 2015
  109. New Paper by Moscow State University Team Confirms Rossi and Parkhomov Experiments in Nickel-LAH System, E-Cat World, October 4, 2015
  110. Louis DeChiaro of US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) on Replicating Pons and Fleischmann, E-Cat World, October 6, 2015
  111. Program for 11th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals, ISCMNS
  112. All the Papers From Airbus Conference, E-Cat World, October 17, 2015
  113. “LENR — From Experiment to Theory” (Paper by Jean-Francois Geneste, Airbus Group), E-Cat World, October 17, 2015
  114. Swedish scientists claim LENR explanation break-through, An Impossible Invention Blog, October 15, 2015
  115. Researchers at Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan Report Excess Heat in Nickel-Hydrogen System, E-Cat World, October 19, 2015
  116. Brillouin Energy Makes Presentation on LENR at US Capitol, E-Cat World, November 10, 2015
  117. Brillouin energy corp. Hosts information session on lenr thermal energy technology at u.s. capitol, November 09, 2015, Cold Fusion Now
  118. Independent Technical Validation Report Completed On Brillouin Energy’s LENR HHT™ Reactor Core Systems (Press Release), December 1, 2015, E-Cat World
  119. Rossi: The E-Cat X Does Produce Electricity Directly, December 26, 2015, E-Cat World
  120. *GlowStick* 5.2, Quantumheat.org MFMP's official website
  121. 1 MW E-Cat Plant Watch Thread UPDATE #41 — 350 Day Test is Over, Mats Lewan’s Sources Say Success, E-Cat World
  122. Historic event: One-year 1 megawatt E-Cat trial completed, An Impossible Invention Blog
  123. The Cookbook is in the signal..., Quantumheat.org MFMP's official website
  124. MFMP Publish their LENR Recipe, E-Cat World, February 24, 2016
  125. BREAKING: The E-Cat has been replicated—here’s the recipe!, An Impossible Invention, February 24, 2016
  126. Implications of Signal, Seeing into the Cat with X-Rays, Youtube
  127. [1]
  128. Cold Fusion (LENR) Verified - Inventor Sues Industrial Heat, LLC.
  129. Rossi et al v. Darden et al